Chili is a Solanácea with six main species and ten secondary species. It is an annual, herbaceous plant, of certain growth. Its root is central with numerous roots, reaching a depth of 70-120 cm. The height of the plants varies of 0,30 to 1m, according to the varieties. The flower of Chili is fragile. The fruit is red a generally yellow berry or in its maturity. The seeds are squashed and smooth, being able to count itself of 150-200 by gram; rich in oil and they conserve his germination power during three or four years.
The name of the chili peppers is quite confused because frequently the same Chile receives another name in a different place, still between which are cultivated commercially. In some places wide Chile is known like "pasilla". Fat Chile can be called jalapeño or poblano. Also is frequent to find in some places a Chili guajillo pepper called "bell pepper" and in another one "mirasol".

Taking in account the classification that becomes for Capsicum spp, most of cultivated chili peppers which appear in the country belongs to Capsicum annuum. In addition, the mentioned species has in Mexico its related wild species, C. annuum var. aviculare, well-known with the name of chiltepe.

The work of Bukasov published in 1930, in Leningrad is the most complete study on the subject of the cultivated plants, raising the genetic diversity in the country, of the following way:

  • Capsicum pubescens

  • Capsicum frutescens var. baccatum

  • C. annuum var. grossum Sendt. group of varieties "I fine"

  • C. annuum var. longum Sendt. variety "Guaque"

  • C. annuum var. acuminatum Fingerth, variety "Chocolate"

  • C. annuum var. abbreviatum Fiongerth, variety "Zambo"

  • C. annuum var. ceraciforme variety "Uluté"

At the present time different names in the classification from Capsicum are used; nevertheless, for the case of Mexico, it is considered that the following species exist:

  • Capsicum annuum L. var. annuum, cultivated forms of C. annuum L. C. annuum L. Var. aviculare (Dierb.) D'Arcy & Eshbaugh.

  • C. ciliatum (HBK) Kuntze

  • C. frutecens L.

  • C. lanceolatum Morton & Stanl.

  • C. pubescens Ruiz & Pavon, considered like synonymous of  C. guatemalense.

Next some frequent species of Chile are described:

Capsicum annuum L.
Common name: Chile small ball, Chile chocolate, tooth dog, guaque, length, zambo.

It is widely cultivated and of greater economic importance, it includes from sweet chili peppers until the hottest one.
Chile is widely used to spice all plate class, being used fresh or dry.

C.annuum L. var. aviculare (Dierb) D'Arcy & Esbaugh.
Mountain Chile or chiltepe, grows in the dry, humid or very humid forests; some times in rocky forests, 1200 meter over the sea level or less of height.
This species are distributed much of it in the Pacific coast like in the one of the Gulf of Mexico; one family characterizes by the globosity and ovoid form of the fruit, the orange color, by its special flavor and average degree of pungency. It is used in the preparation of hot sauces and in tanning.

Chinense Capsicum.
Also it is widely spread in Tropical America. The greater diversity of this chili exists in the region of the Amazon, and its center of origin is the South America. Some varieties grow in Africa and they are reported like sharpest of all chili peppers. A constriction underneath the chalice is only the morphologic character that separates chinense C. of C. frutescens.

C. chinense y C. frutescens strictly are related and probably both they could be combined in a species, in such case the name of C.s frutescens has preference.

No type of wild chinense C. is known and seems that the ancestor is the wild type of C. frutescens. The flowers appear in number from two to five by knot (rarely solitary). Pedicelo can be turgid, pending or inclined in antesis, but the
majority is pending. The corolla is white or white greenish with straight lobes that do not bend nor have spots in the base. The chalice typically shows a construction in the union with pedicelo. The teeth of the chalice can be pronounced (the majority) or no. The seed is of pajizo color and frequently it is wrinkled irregularly with salient boards and waves.
Havanan Chile, identifies to all petenero due to the delicate use and intensive that does of him, nevertheless, widely it is not distributed, restricting the area from production to the towns that surround to the lake of Petén Itzá, although at the present time it is dispersing to some regions bordering to Poptún and San Luis. This class of Chile could be said that it is endemic for the central zone of the Petén, since in the rest of the country it is little or nothing well-known. Two classes of Havanan Chile exist, the yellow shining with wax appearance and the red one. First of which it is solicited in the local market whereas the second is the one that takes place at the moment for export. Their requirements of light give the facility of being able to cultivate it associate with macal (Xanthosoma sp.) and papaya (Carioca papaya) or in monoculture.

Chile chocolate
It is an extended conical Chile, widely cultivated in the Eastern, northeastern zone and in some regions of the country. It is used like spice in the hot preparation of tamales, preparation of tacos, sauces and toasting to stopped the comal to add it to frijoles.

At the present time the culture area is expanding to many regions of the country, compared with the distribution that it had a few years ago, when it was restricted mainly to the zone of the Veracruz, the reason of this advance in the borders of its distribution is because it has a high demand in the scope of country.

Tip of hen
Call also tooth of dog, maaxic. This Chili is widely distributed in the warm-humid region of Mexico, being developed most of times in wild form. It is characterized mainly by his thin conical form and by its high degree of pungency, being used in the elaboration of hot sauces and pickles. Their requirements of light cause that it is developed mainly in the shade that provides the familiar orchards or in areas covered by trees and green vegetation. Its use in the nutritional diet is restricted groups that please to eat highly pungent chili peppers.

Chile Cobanero
Also call Tolito, original variety of the South, scattered at the moment in the south and center, as well as to the northeast. Typical cobanero Chili, is characterized for being round and in light red color, getting a dark red color after being roasted, and before being processed in the grinder into powder, presentation that has a lot of demand in the market.

Capsicum frutescens L.
The Tabasco culture is the only member of those species outside cultivat in the tropical. This species is characterized by its blue anthers, their yellowish, white greenish or milky corollas usually they have some knots with one or two pedicelos.



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